1. Luna Park
18 Lower Esplanade, St Kilda VIC 3182, Australia
The original Luna Park opened in 1905 on Coney Island, New York. It was one of many amusement parks that would take the name “Luna Park.” In fact, there are several amusement parks named Luna Park today around the world. This article focuses on the original one.
In 1910, the park was purchased by George Tilyou, who renamed it Dreamland. He added a large Ferris wheel called “Big Dipper” in 1912. By 1913, he began construction of a central tower, which became known as the Luna Tower. When completed, the Luna Tower was the tallest structure in Brooklyn.
By 1917, Dreamland was sold to William Randolph Hearst, who changed the name to Luna Park. During World War I, the park closed briefly due to the scarcity of rides and attractions. After the war, the park reopened under the same management team as Dreamland.
During the 1920s, the park continued to grow, adding roller coasters such as the Thunderbolt, Big Cyclone, and Silver Streak. The park also built a hotel, ballroom, and theater. A replica of the Statue of Liberty was constructed in 1923. The statue was moved to the center of the boardwalk in 1927.
In 1929, the park hosted the first International Euchre Tournament. In 1930, the park introduced its famous “Coney Island Hot Dog Eating Contest.” At the end of the decade, the park expanded again with the addition of the Wonder Wheel, the Sky Ride, the Flying Turns, and the Steeplechase.
On June 3, 1932, the park held its grand opening. Guests included President Franklin D. Roosevelt, actress Clara Bow, and Broadway star Al Jolson. However, just four months later, the park was forced into receivership following financial problems.
After the Great Depression, the park struggled financially. In 1936, the park was bought by Charles Feltman, who renamed it Luna Park. In 1938, the park was hit by another fire, destroying much of the park.
2. Melbourne Cricket Ground
Brunton Ave, Richmond VIC 3002, Australia
The Melbourne Cricket Club (MCC), Australia’s oldest sporting club, is celebrating 150 years since it was founded in 1858. In honor of the milestone, MCC commissioned artist Michael Leunig to paint a mural on the wall of the iconic MCG grandstand. The painting depicts a cricket match, with players representing the clubs that played in the inaugural season. On the sidelines are members of the original team, including William Wills, the man credited with founding Australian rules football.
The earliest known cricket match played in Australia took place on October 28, 1839 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, where a “gentlemanly game” was played against another gentleman’s team from Victoria. A second match was held in January 1840, involving teams from New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria. This led to the formation of the Australian Cricket Association (ACA), which became the foundation of the modern Australian rules football league system.
In June 1851, the MCC moved into temporary accommodation at the Exhibition Ground in North Fitzroy. It was here that the first ever intercolonial match was held on July 4, 1851; the visitors defeated the local side by three wickets. On April 26, 1852, the MCC purchased land at the corner of Collins Street and Bourke Street for £500. By the end of 1855, it had been raised to £1,100.
On May 15, 1856, the MCC leased the present site from the Crown for £3,200 per annum. The lease ran for 99 years, renewable thereafter for successive terms of 50 years each. The rent was increased to £5,400 in 1874. The MCC erected a grandstand in 1857, and a pavilion in 1860. The latter cost £2,800, and included
The first cricket match at the ground was played on 30 September
1854, while the first interstate cricket match to be played there was
between Victoria and New South Wales on 3 March 1856.
Victoria had played Tasmania (then called Van Dieman’s Land) as early
as 1851 but the Victorials had included two professional players in the
1853 team, upsetting the Tasmanians and creating a coolness between the
First Test match
The concept of playing first class cricket matches against representative teams was introduced in 1858 by England captain Ivo Bligh. He wanted to encourage the development of fast bowling and believed that a strong performance against such opposition would help foster a better understanding of the rules of the game. In 1877, the Victorian Cricket Association appointed an Englishman named James Lillywhite to lead the first tour of Australia by a British team. Lillywhite was known for being a strict disciplinarian and he expected his team to follow him without question. However, there were problems soon after the team arrived in Sydney. As they prepared to face NSW, Lillywhite discovered that several members of the team had been drinking heavily during the voyage. His anger grew when he found out that many of his best bowlers had been absent due to illness. After consulting with the rest of the committee, Lillywhite decided that the team needed to redeem itself. On November 25th, 1877, Lillywhite announced that the next day’s match would be a one-day affair. The game went ahead without incident and the tourists won easily.
The City of Toronto is launching a pilot project to provide free parking permits for those who are eligible under the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA). This includes people with disabilities, seniors, students, caregivers and youth. To qualify, you must be able to park legally in one of four zones around the city. You can apply online starting today.
You can find out if you’re eligible here. If you’re interested in applying for a permit, you’ll need to complete the following steps:
1. Go to https://www.mcg.org.au//parkingaccessibility
2. Click on “Apply Online”
3. Enter your information into the application form
4. Complete the payment process
5. Print off your receipt
3. Sea Life Melbourne Aquarium
12 Must See Exhibits at SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium
King St, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
The SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium offers visitors a chance to experience marine life up close and personal. From sharks to stingrays, turtles to penguins, there are plenty of exhibits here to make sure everyone gets wet. Here are 12 must see exhibits at SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquatorium.
1. Penguin Encounter – Meet adorable little penguin chicks and watch them grow into adults. You’ll even get to hold a chick yourself!
2. Stingray Bay – Get face-to-face with the aquatic creatures in this exhibit. Watch as they swim around freely and interact with each other.
3. Australian Sea Lion Pool – These playful animals love nothing better than splashing about in the water. They’re just like dolphins in the way they play and frolic around.
4. Shark Encounters – Gaze into the eyes of one of nature’s most feared predators. Then, learn how to spot shark bites, tail slaps and fin kicks.
5. Seahorse Kingdom – Spot the seahorses, starfish and sea dragons swimming amongst corals and tropical fish.
6. Turtle Reef – Explore the underwater habitat of a variety of species including green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle and hawksbill sea turtle.
7. Coral Reef – This is where you can come face to face with clownfish, parrotfish and anemone fish.
8. Penguins of Madagascar – The penguins from the popular cartoon series live on dry land at SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquareum.
9. Giant Ocean Tank – Take a look at some of the largest saltwater aquariums in the world.
10. Touchpool – Kids will enjoy playing in the shallow end of the pool while parents relax in the deep end.
11. Underwater World – Swim through coral reefs, past colorful fish and undersea plants.
12. Rainforest Adventure – Climb over fallen trees, slide down a log flume and explore rainforest habitats.
SEA Life Melbourne Aquarium
The SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium opened in 1992. Located at Federation Square, it features over 2 million litres of water and more than 3,500 marine animals representing 500 species. Visitors are able to interact with sharks, dolphins, penguins, rays and turtles. There are three main sections of the aquarium: Ocean Explorers, Sea Lion Kingdom and Penguin Beach. The aquarium has won numerous awards including Best New Attraction in Australia, Best Family Experience in Australia and most recently the award for Most Improved Attraction in Australia.
SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium – Things to know
The SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium is one of Australia’s most popular attractions. If you are planning to visit the aquarium, here are some things to know about it.
The best time to visit the SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium depends on what day of the week you go. On weekends, the aquarium opens at 9am and closes at 5pm; however, during school holidays, the opening times vary according to the season. During summer months, the aquarium opens daily at 9am and closes on Sundays at 4pm. In winter, the opening hours are Monday to Friday at 9am and Sunday to Thursday at 11am.
If you want to enter the SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquaria, you must buy tickets online beforehand. Tickets cost approximately $46 AUD per adult and $26 AUD per child. Children under three years old do not require admission. However, children aged between four and 14 years old pay half the ticket price.
You need to arrive at least 30 minutes prior to closing time. This way, you will avoid waiting in long queues.
SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium – Opening Hours
Monday – Friday: 10am – 5pmSaturday & Sunday: 9.30am–5pmClosed Tuesday & Wednesday
The SEA LIFE Melbourne Aquarium is open daily from 10am to 5pm. Entry is free, however there are some additional costs associated with activities such as feeding the sharks and penguins. If you plan to do any of these activities, please check our website for more information.
4. Crown Melbourne
8 Whiteman St, Southbank VIC 3006, Australia
The Crown Hotel opened in 1897 and was one of the first hotels built in the city. It was demolished in 1998.
Crown Casino has been offering Baccarat since it opened in 1970. In fact, Baccarat is the largest single source of revenue at Crown. There are seven different versions of Baccarat offered at Crown, including traditional Baccarat, Crown Baccarat, and Crown Baccarat. The three main differences among the three types of Baccarat are the wagers allowed, the rules of play, and the payouts.
The different versions of Baccarats offered at Crown vary according to the type of room in which they’re played. The rooms differ based on the number of tables being used and the size of the bets. For example, the Diamond Lounge uses the smallest table with the highest betting limits. The Mahogany Room uses the biggest table with the lowest betting limits. All three variants of Baccarat offer the same basic rules of play. However, there are some subtle differences among each variant.
Crow’s Blackjack is a variation of 21 that offers players more flexibility than standard blackjack. Players can choose between two or six decks of cards, as well as whether to use a soft 17 rule or not. The game also allows for split hands and double down options.
Crows Roulette is a version of European roulette where the house edge is 6.5%. This means that if you bet $100, you’ll win $65.50 after accounting for the house’s cut.
Craps is another popular casino game at Crown. The game is similar to dice except that instead of rolling a set of six numbers, players roll the dice until they get a 7 or 11. If a player rolls a 7 before getting a 7 or 11, he loses all his money. If a player gets a 7 or 11 before rolling a 7, he wins half of his original bet.
There are many other games available at Crown, such as Pai Gow Poker, Three Card Rummy, Caribbean Stud, Let It Ride, Keno, and Video Poker.
Crows Poker is a poker-based card game that features an additional wildcard called “the crown”. The game is played by placing a bet on either red or black. Each round consists of five cards dealt face up from a deck of 52 cards. After the first four rounds, the dealer deals a fifth card face down. At this point, the player may call any amount of chips to place a bet on the next hand. The player then turns over their hand and reveals what cards were held. If the player holds the crown, they must reveal the exact suit of the crown. If the player does not hold the crown, they must show the color of the suit. If the player shows the correct suit, they win the pot. Otherwise, the player loses the entire pot.
The Crown Poker Room encompasses a larger area within the Crown basement beneath the food court. Within this area are tables for both cash games and tournaments, with several different varieties of table games offered. These range from traditional No Limit Texas Hold’Em, to Omaha Hi/Lo split pots, to various forms of Pot Limit Omaha and Seven Card Stud. In addition to these, there are also three card stud games, along with a variety of single player games like Three Card Poker and Five Card Draw.
In terms of tournaments, Crown offers many popular formats, including a $10 buy-in NLHE event every day, starting at 8pm, as well as a $100 buy-in Aussie Millions Main Event each month. There are also monthly events running throughout the week, including Sunday Million, Monday Night Cash, Tuesday Super High Roller, Wednesday Bounty Hunter, Thursday Big One For One Drop, Friday $50K Guaranteed and Saturday $25K Guarantee.
Crown Casino opened in 1996 and is located in Melbourne, Australia. In addition to being the host of the Australian Millions, the casino also hosts the annual World Series of Poker Asia Pacific and the World Series of Poker Australasia.
The casino offers many video gaming machines including table games such as blackjack, baccarat, craps, pai gow, roulette, Texas hold ’em, stud poker, three card monte and wheel spin. Additionally, there are slot machines, arcade games, sports betting and live entertainment.
5.Royal Exhibition Building
The Royal Exhibition Building is a historic landmark located in Melbourne, Victoria, in Australia. The building was constructed in 1880 as part of the International Exhibition held in Melbourne, one of many such expositions held during the 19th century. The building is situated on about 26 hectares (64 acres) of land between Swanston Street, Flinders Lane, Russell Street, and La Trobe Street.
The Royal Exhibition Building was opened on May 30, 1888, during Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee celebrations. It was originally known as the National Museum and Art Gallery. In 1891 it became the Australian Museum, and in 1901 it took on its current name, the Royal Exhibition Building.
In addition to housing exhibitions, the building also houses the offices of several government departments, including the Prime Minister’s Office, the Attorney General’s office, the Treasury, and the Department of Finance.
In the 1960s, the building underwent extensive renovations, which included the removal of the original skylight and replacement with a glass dome.
The building is located within the grounds of the Domain, one of Australia’s most famous parks. It stands opposite the Old Parliament House, now home to the Australian War Memorial.
Joseph Reed was born in England in 1843 and studied at the University College London School of Architecture. His work includes the Melbourne Town Hall, State Library of Victoria, Baroque style gardens, and the Victorian Gothic style St Patrick’s Cathedral.
Reed and his partner Thomas Rowe won the competition to design the Exhibition Building in 1886, beating out rival designs submitted by architects James Barnet, John Smith Murdoch, and William Wardell. The winning entry was described by the press as “a magnificent structure, large enough to accommodate the whole world.”
The original exhibition building was designed by Alfred William Blomfield, and built between 1879 and 1883. Its construction cost £1 million ($2.8 million). The building was constructed in three stages:
• First stage – 1879–1882
• Second stage – 1884–1888
• Third stage – 1889–1893
The building was opened on 10 October 1883, and officially named “the Victoria Building”. It was originally intended to house the Royal Exhibition of Arts and Industry held in London in 1862. However, it was found too small for such an event, and the government chose Sydney as the site of the exhibition.
In 1886, the name of the building changed from the Royal Exhibition Building to the Imperial Institute Building, and again in 1890 to the Queen’s Jubilee Exhibition Building. Finally, in 1893, the name was changed once more to the Royal Exhibition Building, and the name stuck.
The building was used for many exhibitions throughout the 20th Century, including the 1910 Empire Exhibition, the 1938 British Empire Games, and the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games.
The building opened in 1882 as the Royal Exhibition Building, hosting the International Exhibition of Arts and Science held each decade from 1886 to 1902. The site chosen for the exhibition was bounded by Swanston Street, La Trobe Street, Spring Street and Russell Square. The building was designed by architects Sir John Sulman and William Pitt Suter, and construction began in October 1881. The building cost £1 million ($1.4 million), including land acquisition.
Inauguration of the first parliament
On 8 May 1901, the first session of the Commonwealth Parliament convened in the building. The ceremony took place in the Senate Chamber, where the Speaker read out the proclamation of Queen Victoria as the first monarch of the Commonwealth of Australia. The first Prime Minister of Australia, Andrew Fisher, delivered his inaugural address in front of the crowd gathered beneath the roof of the building. Following the speech, the members of the house assembled in the Great Hall of the building for the swearing-in of the federal ministers and senators.
Following the inauguration, the Commonwealth Government relocated to the Victorian State Parliament, which had been built in 1856 and was located across the Yarra River in Carlton. The Victorian Parliament remained there until 1927, when it moved to purpose-built premises in East Melbourne. The building was used as a museum for many years, and was eventually demolished in 1970.
A national flag competition
In 1899, the government of New South Wales established a competition to design a national flag. The winning entry, submitted by Mary Gilmore, consisted of a blue ensign defaced by a white cross of Saint George, charged with a red fimbriated saltire. This was adopted as the basis for the flag of Australia, though the proportions of the cross and the colours of the stripes are different from those of the current flag.
Designers of flags for the states of Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania chose designs based on the British Union Jack; the former state of South Australia opted for a design incorporating elements of the Southern Cross constellation; and the Northern Territory chose a design featuring the Aboriginal flag.
The Royal Exhibition Building was constructed in 1882–1883 to house the International Industrial Exposition held in November 1880. Designed by architects William Wardell and Thomas Sully, it was built in the style of French Renaissance architecture, and cost A£1 million ($2.4 million).
Following the exhibition, the building was used as the headquarters of the Victorian Railways Board until 1889, when it became the home of the Public Works Department and later the Department of Housing and Construction. In 1924, the building was converted into a department store, known as “Tillie’s”, which operated there until 1969. From 1970 to 1982, the building served as the headquarters of the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC), Australia’s national public broadcaster.
In 1981, the building was selected to host the 1982 Commonwealth Games, and the construction of a new sports stadium adjacent to the building commenced in 1982. The project was completed in 1986, and the venue hosted the games, which are now referred to as the 1982 Commonwealth Games. As part of the redevelopment, the existing building was extensively refurbished, and the roof was covered with copper tiles. This work was carried out under the direction of architect Peter Hall, who designed the renovation.
Glen Eadie Ave, Healesville VIC 3777, Australia
The name “Healesville Sanctuary” was adopted in 1995. Previously it had been called the “Sir Colin MacKenzie Sanctuary”. This change reflected the fact that the sanctuary was no longer under the control of the former owner of the property where it sits. In 1992, the landowner sold the sanctuary to the state government, which took over management of the site.
In 1996, the sanctuary changed its name again, this time to “Healesville Sanctuary”, named after the local area in which it resides.
The Institute of Anatomical Research (IAR) was established in 1920 by Dr Colin MacKenzie, a Scottish anatomist and surgeon. He named his institute after himself, and used it as a base for research into the anatomy of mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. His work included studies of the development of the embryo, the structure of muscles and tendons, and the function of bones. He was knighted in 1929 for his contributions to medical science.
In 1923 he began collecting specimens of animals native to Australia, including kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, echidnas, koalas, emus and cassowaries. These were housed in purpose built enclosures within the grounds of the IAR.
In 1926 the IAR purchased the former Coranderrk Aboriginal reserve, located about 20 km east of Healesville, Victoria. This site was chosen because of the abundance of wildlife found there, and because it was close enough to Melbourne for the collection of live specimens. In 1928 the first platypus was captured at Coranderrk, and brought to the IAR where it lived in a small aquarium. Over the next few decades the IAR collected many other Australian animals, such as crocodiles, snakes, lizards, frogs, bats, owls, parrots, quolls, possums, marsupials, insects, spiders, butterflies and moths. Many of these are now kept in zoos around the world.
In 1930 the IAR opened a reptile house containing some of the most dangerous creatures in the world, including saltwater crocodiles, Komodo dragons and king cobras.
In 1932 the IAR moved into a new building constructed specifically for its purposes. After World War II, the IAR continued to expand, acquiring additional property and developing further facilities. By 1963 the IAR occupied over 80 hectares (200 acres) of land, and employed over 200 people.
In 1967 the IAR was incorporated as a charitable trust, and in 1968 the name was changed to the Institute of Anatomy & Anthropology. In 1969 the IAA was granted a Royal Charter making it one of the oldest scientific institutions in Australia.
Today the IAA is still based at Coranderrk near Healesville, and continues to collect and study specimens of rare and endangered Australian fauna. Its main focus is on anatomical research, particularly in the fields of comparative anatomy, embryology and developmental biology. The IAA also houses a library of over 300,000 volumes, and maintains extensive collections of fossils, artefacts, photographs and films relating to the history of life on Earth.
Animals and exhibits
The Australian Zoo Association defines zoos as institutions where animals are kept in captivity for public display. Zoos are often associated with wildlife parks, aquariums, botanical gardens, and similar facilities. They are usually run by conservationists and animal welfare groups.
Zoos originated thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Some early zoos included lions, tigers, bears, elephants, giraffes, rhinoceroses, hippopotami, camels, ostriches, zebras, monkeys, and many others. Today, there are over 5,500 zoological parks around the world. Most of these are located in North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Mongolia. There are also several zoo associations and federations worldwide.
There are three main types of zoo: naturalistic, semi-naturalized, and artificial. Naturalistic zoos keep animals in their native habitats; semi-naturalized zoos use some natural elements in their enclosures, such as rocks, waterfalls, and plants; while artificial zoos do not include any natural elements. Artificial zoos are also called “zoogeographical”, because they house animals according to their geographical distribution.
In addition to housing animals, zoos also exhibit collections of flora and fauna. These collections are either organized based on taxonomy, geography, or chronology. Collections may also focus on endangered species, rare diseases, or unusual behaviors. Zoological museums are collections of specimens, including fossils, minerals, bones, eggs, nests, insects, parasites, and other items related to animals.
A zoo is a place where people come to view animals in close proximity, usually in large enclosures. Many zoos offer interactive experiences, allowing visitors to feed or touch animals. Other zoos allow visitors to walk among the animals. In recent decades, zoos have become increasingly popular tourist attractions.
Some zoos are open to the public, offering regular admission fees. Others require special permits or membership cards. A few zoos are free to enter, although charges may apply for food, souvenirs, and entertainment.
Most zoos are nonprofit organizations. However, some zoos are operated privately or by governments or corporations. Private zoos may charge admission fees, or rely on donations. Government zoos may receive funding from government agencies or private foundations. Corporations sometimes build zoos for educational purposes.
7.Shrine Of Remembrance
Birdwood Ave, Melbourne VIC 3001, Australia
The Shrine of Remembrance is a monument in the grounds of King’s Domain in Melbourne, dedicated to those Australian soldiers killed during the First World War.
The shrine was designed by Sir John Sulman, and construction began in 1927. It was officially opened on 21 November 1929 by Governor General Lord Stonehaven.
The idea of a war memorial began in earnest during World War I. After the Armistice in November 1918, there was widespread feeling among Australians that the sacrifices of those killed in the conflict had been forgotten. This led to calls for a national memorial to honour those who died in the Great War. The most prominent advocate of such a monument was the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes, who argued that it would help heal the wounds left by the war. He visited France in 1919 to see the cemeteries where many of his compatriots who fought overseas are buried, and he returned home convinced of the importance of creating a similar site in Australia.
In response to this call, the Commonwealth Government established the War Graves Commission in 1921, although it did not begin work on a permanent memorial until 1927. Construction of the main part of the memorial, known as Anzac Cove, began in 1929; it was dedicated three years later. Other parts of the memorial were added over subsequent decades.
Opposition and response: 1922–1927
The competition for the Melbourne Memorial Hospital won out over the Shrine of Remembrance.
In 1923, the newly elected Labor Party government of Premier James Scullin wanted to make good on his election promise to build a memorial hospital for soldiers wounded during World War I. A committee headed by the architect Sir Roy Grounds recommended that the site be chosen at the intersection of Flinders and Swanston streets, where the current Royal Children’s Hospital stands today. The proposal came up against strong opposition from some quarters, especially from the Catholic Church, which feared that it might become too much like a shrine. In addition, there were concerns about how the building could fit into the cityscape.
As a compromise, the government chose a location near the corner of Bourke and Collins Streets, which was considered less objectionable to the church. This site was eventually chosen for the Shrine of Remembrance, which opened in November 1927.
A temporary wooden structure was erected in place of the permanent one in 1926; it stood for the duration of the Anzac Day march each year.
Construction and dedication: 1927–1934
The Shrine of Remembrance was built in memory of those Australians killed during World War I. Construction began in 1927, with the foundation stone being laid by the Governor of Victoria on 11 November 1927. A design competition was held in 1928, with entries including designs by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker. In 1929, the winning entry was submitted by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, and it was officially opened on 14 May 1932 by the Duke of York.
In 1933, the shrine was expanded to include a memorial garden, and the forecourt was constructed in front of the north face of the building. The project cost $1.5 million ($26.3 million in 2012 dollars), and was funded by donations from state and federal governments, as well as local businesses. The Shrine was officially opened on 11 November 1934 by Prince George, Duke of Kent, who donated his father’s sword, Excalibur, to the Shrine.
Post World War II: 1945–1985
After World War II it was thought necessary to add to the shrine an element commemorating the Australians killed in the Second World War. This led to another competition being run. Two architects submitted designs; one was designed by Alfred Salmond Fall and the other by Ernest Edwin Milston. Both men won the competition and both received a prize of £100. However, the winner was decided by the committee of the National Memorial Arboretum. The final design was by Milston. He had been working on his design since 1947. His design was chosen over Fall’s because it was considered “more appropriate”. The design was constructed in 1952.
In 1950, the Australian Government announced that Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blomeley, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces in Italy during WW2, would be buried at the Shrine. On 11 November 1950, the body arrived at the Shrine. The following day thousands of people attended a public viewing and a state funeral.
The Shrine was vandalised twice during the Vietnam War. Anti-Vietnam protesters broke windows and daubed slogans on walls. They were removed by police.
On 30 April 1972, the Shrine was attacked by vandals. Graffiti was sprayed across the building. The words ‘PEACE’ and ‘OUT OF THE ASHES WE COME’ were written on the north wall. The graffiti was removed within hours and the damage repaired.
On 25 February 1985, the Shrine was damaged by arsonists. The fire gutted the roof and destroyed much of the interior. The fire brigade believed that the fire began in the basement and spread up into the main structure.
Redevelopment: 2002 – present
The redevelopment of the Shrine began in 2002, when the Victorian government announced a plan to build a multi-purpose hall, library, cafe, information center and memorial garden. This project, costing $15 million, was completed in 2004.
In 2005, plans were unveiled to construct a new visitors’ centre, designed by architect David Chipperfield, which opened in 2008. The building is located directly opposite the original shrine, and includes a café, gift shop, and meeting rooms. The design incorporates a number of recycled materials, including corrugated metal roofing, timber cladding, and glass windows salvaged from the former Royal Children’s Hospital.
Since 2007, the Shrine has hosted a major annual commemoration each November, known as Anzac Day, commemorating those who died in World War I. These events are attended by thousands of Australians, both locally and overseas.
A second phase of the redevelopment project commenced in 2010, with the construction of a new road bridge connecting Yarraville Road with the Shrine grounds. The bridge, constructed by Stride Corporation, was officially opened on 25 April 2011.
On 2 June 2013, it was announced that the Shrine would receive funding to expand into the undercroft area, providing additional storage and maintenance areas for the Shrine’s collection of artifacts and memorabilia.
Following the announcement of the proposed expansion, opposition grew among local residents, who felt that the Shrine was already too big and that the expansion would destroy the character of the Shrine.
In August 2013, the Australian Labor Party pledged to increase funding for the Shrine, while the Liberal Opposition promised to review the decision to fund the expansion.
8.Old Melbourne Gaol
377 Russell St, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
The Old Melbourne Gaol was built in 1839, and originally served as both a prison and a courthouse. It became a prison in 1845, holding and executing some of Australia’s most infamous criminals. The Old Melbourne Gaol closed in 1924, and remained unused until 1977, when it was converted into a museum. Today, it holds exhibits about crime and punishment in Victorian times, and includes recreations of cells used in the 19th century.
The prison opened on May 27th, 1869, and operated until June 30th, 1890, when it closed due to overcrowding. Its purpose was to hold short-term prisoners awaiting trial, while those found guilty would go to the county jail. However, the prison was rarely full; most inmates stayed less than six months.
Inmates had been held there since 1789, when it was known as the County Gaol. In 1812, it became known as the New York City Jail. It was renamed again in 1824, when it became the Eastern Penitentiary, and finally changed its name once again in 1846, becoming the Auburn State Prison.
The execution of bushrangers was a common occurrence throughout Australia during the 19th century. Between 1838 and 1900, more than 400 men and women were hanged for crimes including murder, rape, arson and treason. In total, there were over 900 recorded hangings in Victoria alone.
Bushranger hangings were often public spectacles. They attracted large crowds, especially in the capital cities of Sydney and Melbourne. Many people came simply to watch the event unfold. Some even brought picnic lunches and blankets to enjoy while watching the hangings. For those who wanted to witness the momentous event up close, special viewing boxes were erected.
In addition to spectators, many members of the press attended hangings. Newspapers reported on the events, sometimes giving detailed accounts of the proceedings. These reports included descriptions of the condemned man’s final words. Most newspapers did not print photographs of the executed criminals, although some published images of the gallows.
Some of the most notorious hangings took place in the Victorian era. On 11 September 1854, three bushrangers – William Atkins, George Wilson, and George Melville – were hanged for the murders of six miners near Ararat, in north-eastern Victoria. Their bodies were left suspended from the branches of trees for five days before being buried in unmarked graves.
On 2 February 1862, John Gilbert was hanged for the murder of his wife Mary Ann in Port Phillip, south-east of Melbourne. He had shot her dead in front of their children, aged eight and four. His body was hung beside hers, and both corpses remained suspended for three days.
On 8 December 1863, Thomas Kelly was hanged for the murder and attempted robbery of a mail coach carrying £1,500 worth of gold bullion. He was the last person to be publicly hanged in Victoria.
A number of hangings occurred at the Old Melbourne Gaol. The first recorded hanging in the building was that of Henry Baker, who was convicted of murdering his mistress, Elizabeth Russell, in May 1856. He died on 29 June 1856.
Little Bourke St, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia
Chinatown is a distinctive and well known area of Melbourne which dates way back to the goldrush days of the 1850s, when it became home to many immigrants from China. Chinatown Melbourne is the longest continuously inhabited Chinese settlement in the Western World. It lies just south of the city centre and extends along Little Bourke Street, linking up with Bourke Street and Londale Streets.
CHINATOWN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
Chinatown’s streetscape was established in 1855 when it became a stopping point for Chinese gold seekers who wanted to make money in California. In 1882, the city designated Chinatown as one of San Francisco’s original eight districts.
The neighborhood features many historic buildings including the Palace Hotel, the oldest continuously operating hotel in San Francisco; the Oriental Building, the tallest building in Chinatown; and the Old St. Mary’s Cathedral, which dates back to 1854.
The Chinese Museum is located within the grounds of the former British Consulate General in Shanghai. This museum features five different sections: History & Art, Science & Technology, Culture, Life & Living, and Heritage. Here you can learn about China’s rich culture and heritage, and discover how it has shaped modern life.
10. Collins Street
C/- Gray Reid Gallery, 156 Collins Street, Melbourne
The Collins Street area covers approximately 0.7 square kilometres (0.3 sq mi). In 2011, it had a population of 2,868 people.
Its main commercial district lies along Collins Street itself, while adjacent streets are home to many smaller shops and restaurants. A number of theatres, cinemas and music venues lie within the vicinity.
The area also contains several large office buildings, including the Australian Securities Exchange building, the headquarters of Telstra Corporation Limited, and the Treasury Building.
The suburb is bounded by Bourke Street to the north, Elizabeth Street to the east, Flinders Lane to the south, and Swanston Street to the west.
The original name of the street was “Collins Street”, after the lieutenant-governor of Victoria, David Collins. In 1854, the road was extended westwards to join up with Flinders Lane, creating what was known as “the main thoroughfare of South Yarra”. A few years later, the section of Collins Street running east from Flinders Lane to Elizabeth Street was renamed Swanston Street, while the section of Collins Street west of Flinders Lane remained Collins Street.In the late 1860s, the city council decided to rename the entire street, following a suggestion by John Pascoe Fawkner, as “Fawkners Road”. However, the change was never implemented, and Collins Street continued to be used as the official name.
In the 1880s, the street was widened to include a footpath along each side, and a tramline was constructed down the middle. By the 1890s, the tram was replaced by trams on both sides of the street. At the same time, the north end of the street was cut off by the construction of the University of Melbourne buildings, with the resulting gap filled in during the 1950s.
In the 1960s, the City Council decided to replace the existing iron railings with concrete ones, and the old stone walls were demolished. During the 1980s, the street was again widened, incorporating the pedestrian mall at the southern end of the street, and the area around the corner of Queens Parade was redeveloped into the Carlton Gardens shopping centre. In the 1990s, the City Council began work on the conversion of the former tramway tunnel under the street into the Princes Mall underground carpark.
Today, Collins Street is the busiest retail street in Australia, and the third most expensive retail street in the world, behind London’s Oxford Street and New York’s Fifth Avenue. The street is home to many high-end retailers, such as Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Tiffany & Co., Burberry, Dolce & Gabbana, Versace, Armani, Hugo Boss, Dior, Bottega Veneta, Cartier, Bulgari, Hermès, Jimmy Choo, Salvatore Ferragamo, Roberto Cavalli, Chanel, Christian Louboutin, Valentino, Yves Saint Laurent, Zadig & Voltaire, and others.
The area around Collins Street is home to several notable landmarks including the former headquarters of the Victorian Railways, the old Post Office building and the former Bank of New South Wales Building.
In 1892, the Melbourne Town Hall opened on the corner of Bourke and Spring streets. It is now part of the Royal Exhibition Building.
The former Central Railway Station, built in 1883, is located on the north side of Collins Street about halfway along it. In the early 1900s the station had been converted into offices and shops.
Collins Street runs east–west across central Melbourne from Flinders Lane to the Yarra River. It is named after Sir Robert Peel, Premier of Victoria from November 1870 to February 1872. He died in London on 11 May 1881.
The street is known for its large department stores and shopping centres such as Myer, David Jones, Kmart, Target Australia, Harvey Norman, Big W, Woolworths and Coles Supermarkets. Other major retailers include fashion designer label Dorothy Perkins, electronics retailer Dick Smith Electronics, furniture store Harvey Norman, toy shop Hamleys, bookseller Bookworld, and music chain JB HiFi.
Stores are concentrated in the city centre, particularly near Spencer Street and Flinders Lane. There are smaller branches of larger chains throughout the suburbs. For example, there are five David Jones stores within 10 kilometres of the CBD.
There are three main pedestrian malls in the city centre; the Bourke Street Mall, Federation Square and Queen Victoria Market. A fourth mall, the Little Lonsdale Street Mall, is being constructed in East Melbourne.
Collins Street was named after Sir Robert Menzies, Prime Minister of Australia from 1949 to 1966. He had been born in Melbourne in 1886 and attended Scotch College. In 1915 he became Secretary of External Affairs under Billy Hughes, and served as prime minister from 1945 to 1951.
The city council commissioned a survey of potential names for the extension of Collins Street. A committee of architects, engineers, planners and residents considered several options, including “Victorian Avenue”, “Menzies Boulevard”, and “Sir Robert Menzies Drive”. However, the name chosen was “Wurundjeri Way”, because it reflected the Aboriginal heritage of the area. The road was officially opened in November 1967.
In September 2003, work began on extending Collins Street to the West Gate Freeway, creating a continuous thoroughfare linking the CBD with the western suburbs. On 18 December 2002, the $1 billion project was completed, connecting the end of Collins Street to the Westgate Bridge across the Yarra River. The completion marked the beginning of the 21st century in Melbourne.